Sunday, 12 April 2015

Challenges to Professional Writing in the Internet Era

To the frequent publisher of research articles, internet-based professional writing is just a different kind of publishing, and one that may not have great consequence. However, for individuals from other walks of life, who've discovered a talent - if not for writing -for conveying information and seeing it exchanged over the internet, the same demands on professional writing hold for the internet as for other media. This difficulty is enhanced in the cases where the blogger is from another creative or physical vocation. In such cases the writer has to make the transition to expression through writing, and then publish written content.
A crucial difference between online professional writing and writing for a journal or news magazine is the level of access. This makes the content highly visible to all, and may attract unwanted publicity which the writer may want to avoid. In cases where the author is only one of several to post to the blog site, any controversy in his/her work also imperils the professional writing credentials of other writers. Also, authors have to obtain digital copyright protection if the content they put out is meant solely for reading and not to be cited.
The hardened professional often has an unmatched depth of knowledge in his discipline and this may even have been verbally delivered in classrooms and lecture halls for a number of years. But the conversion to type might see the work collapse for want of conciseness or for being excessively descriptive. Professional writing in the online domain is as much about communicating as much as possible in very little time. To some authors, the content overrides such aesthetic concerns. These are usually cases involving professional writing for other professionals.
Academic writing is often a matter of sourcing your information correctly, and prominently advertising those supporting facts. The presentation in printed form has been standardized from years of professional practice. But the nature of presentation on the internet makes it difficult for displaying references without making the reader flip back and forth across pages. The only exception to such an inconvenience is where electronic links can be provided and the references can be hyperlinked. Other alternatives such as the use of embedded or floating text may not be as apparent to all readers, resulting in a gap in communication.
On the whole, professional writing still belongs to the print era rather than the electronic era, although the advance of the printable document format has made it slightly convenient to preserve print-like formatting without losing content. Unless it becomes binding to have more and more content in a directly accessible online the transition is going to be difficult to achieve. But the day when all information is transacted and acted upon purely through the internet is still some distance in the future. The reliance will be on paper until then, with hope that scanning and storing techniques for multilingual or multi-level data can be created quickly enough.
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3 Things You Should Know About Essay Writing in the Accounting Field

1. Necessary Evil
Gone are the days when number-crunching alone could get you through accounting exams. Examiners expect to see evidence of good written communication skills,reflecting the changing role of finance professionals in business. How you present an argument (why you handle transactions in a certain way, or the pros and cons of alternative courses of action) requires you to demonstrate clarity of thought, a rational approach, and an economic but effective way with words.This you can learn.
2. Cunning Plan
You don't have time on your side-so sketch out the main points you plan to cover while putting together a loose essay structure, ensuring you cover everything the examiner has asked for before you begin writing. Download as much as you can from your mind on to your paper, then organize only the relevant points into a logical order-so that the marker doesn't have to jump back and forth to work out what you mean. Practice doing all this-fast-with past papers and under full exam conditions.
3. Perpetual editor
As you write, keep an eye out for where you can tighten your sentences, use better vocabulary, or convey your message more effectively. Don't ramble to give the impression of having covered the question thoroughly-padding is more visible than you think; instead, prune ruthlessly. Put yourself in the marker's shoes: does what you are writing actually answer the question or have you gone off at a tangent? Nobody scores marks for off-the-wall thinking stick to the examiner's agenda.
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Cheating In Relationships

Cheating is usually a symptom of an unhealthy relationship. It destroys friendships, breaks trust, and causes guilt, anger, hurt and many other negative emotions. Cheating in relationships is not going to last. People know all these facts, but still go on cheating others.
The major point about cheating in relationships is that it is accidental. Most people do not want to cheat on their associates. A known fact is that most persons who experience infidelity in their relationships are likely to experience in future also, even when they move on to other relationships. This is pretty incredible, but true. Some people think that getting badly burned once would be sufficient. However, this is not quite the way it occurs for many people.
There are several reasons why cheating, adultery, infidelity and extra marital affairs often occur in many relationships. People are complicated and appearances can be deceptive. Cheating in relationships depends upon several factors. One important factor is the choice of a partner or spouse. If the choice is not in line with what they require or wish, or with what their partner can give them, there is a chance of cheating.
Cheating also occurs when people fail to give their relationships priority by putting time and energy into them. Another major reason is the failure to understand the issues that led to infidelity in the first place. Many people do not want to analyze the role they played in the failure of a relationship. In most cases, they blame others for things that went wrong rather than look inward for complete understanding.
Cheating often occurs in many marital relationships. Communication is here the most problematic issue. For a myriad of reasons, partners get little time to talk about feelings with each other, particularly negative feelings. In some relationships, partners are not allowed to share unhappiness. Misunderstandings also make people feel that their spouse does not want to hear their problems. So they do not talk about difficulties. The lack of a sense of empowerment, issues of self esteem and unequal partnership are also significant problems in any relationship.
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Questions about Yoga Teacher Training via Correspondence

Recently, I spoke to a Yoga teacher intern about Yoga teacher training correspondence courses. He had six years of formal training with a master Yoga teacher (Guru), and currently, lives outside of North America. This interview will help to put some light on Yoga teacher training by correspondence.
Q: Will a Yoga teacher training correspondence package make me competent enough to teach Yoga? This is bearing in mind that, at this time, I do not have access to a local Yoga instructor, who can supervise my Yoga teacher training?
A: Yes, your past experience will help, but the Yoga teacher training course must be entirely complete, and if you wanted to send an early pre-exam video, or DVD, to monitor your progress the director of Yoga teacher training should review for free, or for a small fee.
A mirror, camera, and audio recorder also make great learning tools for monitoring your progress, while you prepare to become a Yoga teacher.
Do not judge yourself too harshly. This is a common reaction, when we record anything we do. When you can get by our own self-criticism; you will be on the path to become a Yoga teacher.
Within your Yoga teacher training course, there should be step-by-step instructions, numerous Yoga resources, and you should also be guided in the direction of additional Yoga teaching resources.
In fact, any time you have a question, you should be able to send an email and receive a timely reply. It is also good if you can get answers over the phone.
Q: On receipt of Yoga correspondence course material how do I proceed with my Yoga teacher training? What do I need to have in order to fully benefit from the Yoga instructor training material?
A: Upon receipt of your Yoga training course material, you should receive step-by-step instructions - however, let's go over the highlights of a typical Yoga teacher certification course.
1) You would want to focus on your written exam first. If you had a 900 page Yoga book to read, for the written exam; set a goal of reading a realistic amount of pages each day. For example: if you were to read 10 pages per day - within 3 months - you should have your written exam complete.
2) You should have developed a complete lesson plan for your Yoga class within the material of your written exam. As harsh as this may sound: Essay exams will teach you more.
Multiple choice or true / false exams are a "process of elimination," and over the long-term, the facts you learn may be easily forgotten. A Yoga teacher written exam should be a measurement of what a Yoga teacher should know.
3) There might also be, at least, one essay. For example: You might pick a health topic to write about for your essay (3 pages - typed). It could be an overview of Yoga, and its relationship to health, or it could be Yoga and its relationship to a specific ailment.
4) Once you have your Yoga lesson plan template, you can start to refine it for your practical exam (video or DVD). As far as VCD's, or DVD's, make sure the examiner can read any format - from any part of the world.
5) In your Yoga course, there should also be a number of continuing education resources, for Yoga teachers.
You should not get side tracked by these during the Yoga certification process. Therefore, focus on your Yoga teacher written exam, the essay, and the practical exam first - and in that order.
Q: What Yoga teacher training level should I start from, and how do I proceed to the next Yoga teacher levels?
A: You should start with a Level 1, 200-hour minimum, Yoga teacher training course.
Q: Are there additional costs in correspondence Yoga teacher courses, which I need to be aware before I start the training, so that I can factor them in?
For International Yoga teacher interns, the only additional cost should be, shipping, and if customs charges an Import Fee, on educational materials. However, you should always ask about extra fees; just to be sure.
Q: I have developed a strong awareness of the benefits of Yoga. There are no Yoga teachers in my locality. Can my Yoga training develop my awareness into a life long career, as a Yoga instructor?
A: To be honest - Yoga teacher certification is only the first step in the journey of teaching Yoga. As you progress - you will either do independent research or take more Yoga courses.
This is the way it is for all Yoga teachers. Most of the time, we tend to focus on finding answers and helping our Yoga students, who have ailments. As a result, you will most likely research Yoga techniques for helping your students.
When it is possible to train with other Yoga teachers again; take advantage of the opportunity. You will much better off by networking with the nearest Yoga teachers, who teach a similar Yoga style.
You should also maintain contact with your Guru, even if the only method of contact is by post. Life is as short as an "eye blink" and your Guru would be proud to know you have chosen this path.
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Writing Essays - Seeing the New View in Carl Sagan's Essay, The Abstraction of Beasts

If you'll follow and learn this three-step method of analyzing published essays I show here, you'll be able to understand published essays and write your own essays about them.
Carl Sagan has written an excellent essay, "The Abstraction of Beasts," providing another strong illustration of the old view - new view pattern intuitively used in all published essays.
#1 - Usually in the first paragraph, an old view is stated that leads directly to a new view thesis, most often a reversal of the old view. The new view thesis is stated at the end of that paragraph or within the next paragraph or two or so, depending on the length of the essay.
You noticed, didn't you, that Sagan immediately identifies the old view in the very first sentence of the first paragraph:
"Beasts abstract not," announced John Locke, expressing mankind's prevailing opinion throughout recorded history.
Hard to miss, right? But did you spot the new view thesis in his second paragraph? There, Sagan suggests his new view thesis reverse of the old view with two questions:
Could abstract thought be a matter not of kind but of degree? Could other animals be capable of abstract thought but more rarely or less deeply than humans?
Note that, although he's suggesting a reverse of the old view, Sagan is saying, not of kind but of degree and but more rarely or less deeply than humans. So he's suggesting that the reverse of Beasts abstract not is possible- that beasts actually do abstract - but perhaps not a complete reversal, not fully up to the level of human abstracting. Now read paragraphs three and four of the essay (begins, We have the impression that) and four (begins, There is, of course,). In that third paragraph-after restating in the first sentence the idea that animals are not very intelligent-Sagan asks a long question: But have we examined the possibility of animal intelligence carefully enough, or, as in Francois Truffaut's poignant film "The Wild Child," do we simply equate the absence of our style of expression of intelligence with the absence of intelligence?
The important part of that question is the very last part - or do we simply equate the absence of our style of expression of intelligence with the absence of intelligence?
To respond to that question, Sagan then provides a quote from Montaigne (who in 1580 published the first book ever on essays) that questions man's ability to communicate, not animals' ability to communicate. (Ignore the footnote in the essay, but read it later, okay?)
The first sentence of the fourth paragraph begins by reversing the first sentence of the third paragraph (animals are not very intelligent), or at least indicating that there's an exception: There is, of course, a considerable body of anecdotal information suggesting chimpanzee intelligence.
With that beginning, you expected to find more about chimpanzee intelligence, right?
Now read paragraphs five (begins, Wallace concluded), six, and seven to see if you do find that out. Pay special attention to the last sentence of that seventh paragraph.
Paragraphs five, six, and seven do provide examples of animals showing some signs of intelligence: the baby orangutan, the chimpanzee genius, the two chimpanzees abusing the chicken, and the newborn chimp with the newborn baby being raised as equals in a human household. But at age three, the chimp could say only three words, with enormous difficulty, while the human child was happily babbling away.
Sagan then summarizes those examples by stating that chimps are only minimally competent with language, reasoning, and other higher mental functions, and he repeats the old view again: Beasts abstract not. That could be a signal the new view support is about to begin.
Now, in Sagan's essay, read the next four paragraphs, starting with the paragraph beginning, But in thinking over these experiments and reading through the paragraph that starts with, There is by now.
In the first three of the next four paragraphs (beginning with, But in thinking over these experiments), Sagan points out how Beatrice and Robert Gardner had the brilliant idea of teaching chimpanzees a language they didn't have to use with their mouths, the American sign language, Ameslan. Sagan doesn't use enough keywords to let us know he's getting back to the new view, but that's just what he's doing-and support does follow right away, starting with, There is by now.
#2 - Right after the new view thesis is stated, support for it begins with a story, an example, or reasoning.
And in the paragraph that begins, There is by now, Sagan generalizes that there's a vast library of descriptions and films of chimpanzees using sign language, and then he narrows down his information to the fact that chimps are remarkably inventive in the construction of new words and phrases. In other words, chimpanzees are recorded on film-and in other ways-many times in the act of abstracting with Ameslan. (It would have been helpful if Sagan had come right out and used the keywords abstract or abstracting or abstractions, right?)
Then, despite not using introductions like for instance or for example for the next six paragraphs, Sagan gives specific examples of exact words and phrases of abstractions created and used by chimpanzees.
Take a good look at that by going back to the essay and reading from the paragraph starting, On seeing for the first time, all the way through the paragraph starting, Having learned the sign 'open' with a door. Then return here so we can round out our discussion on support for the new view thesis.
After all those examples of abstractions, the rest of the support for the new view thesis that beasts do abstract much like humans, includes-
  • Boyce Rensberger, the American reporter, talking Ameslan with Washoe, the chimp (Ameslan was Rensberger's first language)
  • Chimpanzees & other primates learning other gestural languages
  • Signing primates compared with microcephalic humans
  • Chimps have parts of their left brain removed, resulting in loss of language capability, just as that removal does in humans
  • Primates passing on information from generation to generation
  • The mini-story of Helen Keller learning language
  • A quote from Charles Darwin about the effects of using language
#3 - The conclusion should briefly restate the new view thesis, summarize the thesis support from body paragraphs, and look to some future aspect of the new view.
In the fifth paragraph before the conclusion, which begins, The continued use, Sagan begins looking to the future.
Go and read that paragraph, and read through to the end of the essay.
In that paragraph, Sagan asks questions about what would happen if chimpanzees were to establish a tradition of sign language usage for a couple of hundred years - or even for a couple of thousand years, such as we humans have done with language. And he speculates that in a few thousand years chimpanzees might have myths and legends about the origins of their language, just as we have our legends of Prometheus about the origins of mankind's language.
Then, in the very last paragraph of the essay, Sagan backs up and begins talking about the possibility that we humans may have systematically exterminated or killed nonhuman primates because they were competition for us, and so we cut off their progression toward a civilized, language-oriented future:
We may have been the agent of natural selection in suppressing the intellectual competition. I think we may have pushed back the frontiers of intelligence and language ability among the nonhuman primates until their intelligence became just indiscernible. In teaching gestural language to the chimpanzees, we are beginning a belated attempt to make amends.
Sagan's conclusion is weak on restating the old view and on summarizing main points that support the new view thesis. But the last sentence of Sagan's essay does suggest a future continuation of mankind's current effort to teach sign language to chimpanzees with, We are beginning a belated attempt to make amends. If we are beginning, then that strongly suggests more to follow in the future.
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Types of Web Content Writing

In the earlier days a writer used to be a journalist, a writer of fiction, non fiction or an academic book writer. Today it is different as there are many more terms used to define a writer especially those writing for the web. With the Internet becoming the most powerful media, new breeds of writing and writers have evolved. Here is a brief list.
  • Ghost writing
  • Technical writing
  • Travel writing
  • Business writing
  • Creative writing
  • Internet research
  • Journalistic writing
  • SEO copywriting
  • Reviews writing
  • Academic Writing
  • News letter writing
  • Blog Writing
  • Translation writing
  • Live chatting
  • Article writing
A lot of content on the web is being rewritten. Content is still rightly considered to be king and professional rewriters have to face the challenge of maintaining the integrity of the original text and its meaning. This type of rewriting demands that the word length and the margins are not changed. Depending on the clients requirement the rewriters have to use their unique skills with words and modify content. They must also take care and be aware of international legalities and potential copyright issues.
There are different types of articles that are written for the web. Quite often these articles are rewritten as pages need fresh content and have to be optimized for the search engines. Some of the common services include rewriting of,
  • PLR (Private Label Rights) articles
  • E-books
  • Articles
  • Manuscript
  • Press release articles
  • Webpage content rewriting
Why is everyone interested in writing articles for their websites? There are many advantages for writing articles. These are because free article posting websites, can boost your online business. Posted articles on websites, they are read by many millions who can be potential business prospects. It can also increase the page rank and the search engine ranking position for the website. Some of the other methods to drive in traffic to the website besides article marketing are organic search engine optimization, paid search engine marketing, email marketing etc.
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Effective Article Writing Techniques

Writing is a textual representation of language, that is with the use of signs and symbols. It is one way of expressing one's point of view, emotions and feelings. One who is good at it generally grabs everybody's attention. Even though regarded as a senile activity, article writing still works well on marketing and advertising. Diverse marketers, both neophyte and amateur, have different styles and tastes in writing articles. Writing articles for them is one source to advocate and vend their products or businesses. On the Internet, the substance of an article is very essential. Especially if you are writing articles for businesses, it's necessary that you write facts that could invite your readers and arouse their interests about your products. You should sound very convincing then. Plus another factor will be your productivity. You must be able to write numerous articles in a month to compete with other article marketers.
The following are some tips on effective article writing:
1. Distinctly state the point of your article in the first paragraph.
It is important to directly open what's the real intention of your article in the first paragraph. The readers might want to know initially what's your point or the purpose of the article, or why you wrote the article and for whom. Or you may state questions like "how", to get the reader's interest and then expound later the content of the article.
2. Systematize the ideas of your material.
Beforehand, you should plan or think about the things you are going to include in your article. It is necessary that you are knowledgeable about the topic you are going to discuss. As much as possible, research more. The facts you will gain will help you obtain more ideas and inputs and this will avoid you on getting empty-brained as you go over writing your article. It is better to write down these points to make sure you include them as you start with the writing process.
3. Pacify your readers.
Keep in mind that when you write something, expect that not all readers can understand the terms you use in your article. As much a possible, use words that are conversational, ordinary, and easy to understand. Refrain from using highly technical words or if you are trying to introduce new terms, define them as well.
4. Illustrate your ideas or your intent in short but concise paragraphs.
In stating or explaining your points, it is better to write it in short sentences. Go directly to the point and avoid using lavish words. Exclude words that are not completely relevant to the sentence. The readers will just find your material boring and no sense at all. Ideally, three to four sentences for a paragraph will work. Be explicit.
5. Give all the necessary information.
Present all the important facts about your business or products. In that way, people will rely on your expertise on the field. You can gain more profit if you do so.
6. Provide examples and cite personal instances to strengthen your points.
It is more convincing to cite personal experiences to support your ideas. State problems and how you were able to resolve it using the products you are promoting. Or you can give hypothetical examples or cite situations that are applicable to your proposed business or products.
7. Stress the advantages of your product or service.
The benefits one can avail from a product or service is the topmost consideration of all potential customers. The features just follow. So if you are marketing your products or service on line, try to emphasize more on the advantages. It is more catchy than explaining more about the features.
8. Give resource information to your readers.
Cite the URLs where your readers can gain more facts about your topic. These will be either your own websites or other sites. Obtaining backlinks are also helpful if you are thinking about losing customers.
9. Share your article for opinions.
Do not be afraid of criticisms on your work. It is nicer to show your work to your peers or colleagues for checking and opinions. It is better that your friends find the mistakes rather than your clients. As a writer, one of your sources towards having a meaningful, well-written article is from other people's point of view. Learn to accept ideas from other people most especially those persons who have earned respect from other writers. They have the experience and wit to share.
10. Express the most important information near the beginning of the material.
It is vital in writing an article to put the necessary inputs at the beginning. Editors usually cut things near the end so better keep your best ideas beforehand. Then at the very end, you will just summarize what you have presented in the article. You are going to finish here what you have started.
Always remember that article writing is a process, it is neither a frenzied activity nor a short burst. You ought to plan, research, write a rough draft of the article, edit, and finally write the final draft. It is a passion. It is all about writing what is in you or what your inner soul tells you. People who will read your material will know and sense your sincerity to reach out to them. When you relay things or facts to people, they will be aware if what you are doing is a bogus. So, when you write, listen to your heart and soul. It is all about perfecting your craft. Practice makes perfect as they say. It's rarely possible to have a perfect article the first time you write. Your writing skills will eventually improve as you go on practicing. Make sure that as you go on writing, you are also developing yourself towards becoming one of the best article writers.
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Psychological Tips For Effective Examination Techniques

One of the inevitabilities of University life is the examination. It is your opportunity to demonstrate your new knowledge and to reap the rewards. Examination remains one of the most common forms of assessment in higher education. It is vitally important to prepare well in advance to give yourself the best chance of success.
The written examination is the most prevalent means of evaluating student learning at the University. SO BE PREPARED.
In examinations many candidates do not do justice to their abilities.
There are two requirements for success in any examination: 
  • The first is knowing the content.
  • Second is demonstrating the knowledge.
Target your studying
Figure out what is important and will likely to appear on the exam by looking at old exams and analyzing what the teachers emphasizes in their class. This includes not only content but also level of learning.
Practice appropriate activities
Studying for an exam should be seen as practicing the activities you will have to perform in the exam, under exam conditions. For example if you will have to do problems, practice doing problems from memory, with in a time limit. Or, if you will have to write essays, practice writing essays from memory within a time limit.
Keep up through out the term
Review regularly through out the term. Without regular review you may have to re-learn a large portion of the course in the week or two before the final... when you are most likely to be finishing up major assignments, practicals etc.
Getting started 
  • Plan a revision timetable and start planning well before exams begin. Take your teachers or parents to help to do so. Jump starts and cramming madly just before exams put too much pressure. Many last minute crammers end up falling ill on the day of exam.
  • Make your books, notes, etc. easier to use by preparing summaries, headings subheadings, and highlighting and revision cards. Attend the revision classes with out fail. Get more revision tips from teachers and friends. Essentially you must do what suits you best.
  • Make notes on important topic as you revise. This will be helpful during future revision, or when you need clarification from a teacher. One of the best methods to develop confidence is to attempt previous papers.
  • If you do not understand something, ask help from a teacher or someone who knows the subject.
  • If you feel stressed, talk to someone. Getting worried off your chest will make you more willing to take in what you learn.
  • Last minute revision is better avoided, as it makes you nervous. Besides last minute cramming is not conducive, if you wish to understand certain topics. Mechanical learning keeps you where you were-definitely at the starting point.
  • Subjects you are not fond of require a lot of revision. Do not keep them for the last minutes. Constant revising will make tough subjects easier to understand.
  • Overnight cramming tires your body and brain. You can only do well when your body and mind are healthy.
  • It is important to eat and sleep well. Do not skip meals or eat in a hurry. Small meals (like snacks) at regular intervals will make you less sluggish. And most importantly, get you adequate sleep. A six to seven hour sleep will freshen your mind and body.
  • Put yourself first-It is an important time for you. Talk your family and find out how they can make studying easier far you. If you feel disturbed due to loud music or television, you should tell your families to keep volumes low. A personal room during exams will keep your mind from wandering.
  • Finally don't revise all the time. Take breaks to do things you enjoy and help you relax. Don't forget there is a life beyond revision and exams.
The night before
Panic and anxiety are really the outburst of uncertainties regarding one's preparation.
Panic sets in the night before or on the day of exam, but you can cope once you are in the examination room.
Spend the last hours calmly reviewing what you have learned. Try not to tackle new materials then.
Avoid staying up all night. The shorter you are on sleep the less clearly you will be able to think and reproduce what you know.
Cram selectively-It is very difficult to study intensively or prepare rapidly for an examination, just on the eve of the examination.
The night before an exam when you are more anxious than usual is one of the least effective times for study. Your ability to deal with concepts and synthesize material is greatly reduced; even your ability to memorize is impaired by marked anxiety. Cramming only help you to be more frantic about the exam and less prepared to do your best. If you do come to the exam time unprepared, use your last minute study as a review of key concepts, instead of trying to learn it all. It is very important to stay calm.
Anxiety- Keep in check 
  • Please understand and accept that exam time is particularly stressful, for all.
  • It is only normal to have stress, it happens to everybody.
  • Little anxiety is sure to help you to heighten your awareness and can enhance your performance. Beyond certain limit, it may be a cause of distress.
Now let us see how one can overcome this: 
  • Carry your notebook to the exam but don't open it. It provides a feeling of security (because you could check a question if you really need to, before the test) and your ability to avoid looking in it increases your feeling of confidence.
  • Panic is contagious. Stay away from the source of contagion.
  • Admit to yourself that you will not know all the answers.
You should assume "Some of it I won't know... and some of it I will." Thus when you read the first question and don't know the answer, you will respond not with the conclusion that you know nothing, not be clutching, but by saying "That is the one I don't know". At this stage please note that whatever is your level of preparation, your task is to do the very best you can.
On the day of the exam
Focus your attention on what you do know rather than on what you don't know and be confident of what you know.
Don't study on the way to the exam hall or in the exam hall. Give your brain little rest. It will help you remember the answer when you write the exam.
Make yourself comfortable by wearing loose and comfortable clothing
Do what you need to do before the exam hall. Talk to friends, if it helps you to relax. Sit on your own, if the presence of other people are likely to rattle you.
  • Have a good breakfast. It will provide the energy and the nourishment you need. Ensure that you eat food that is not greasy or difficult to digest.
  • Leave for the exam hall well in advance.
  • Take everything you need, like for instance, extra pens, water, pencils erasers, stapler, calculators (if permitted) etc.
  • Go to the toilet before an exam. Going to the toilet during the exam is an embarrassment as well as it may break your concentration.
  • Finally you feel anxious, take a few deep breaths and exhale slowly. A wonderful way to bust anxiety is to inhale a deep breath and count to 20 and then slowly exhaling.
Getting started
Get as comfortable as you can in your seat.
First read the front cover of the answer paper. Ensure that you fill in the correct details of the Exam paper such as your Roll No., Exam Code, Centre Code, Subject Code, and Subject etc. Fill all the necessary details called for.
When you get the question paper 
  • Read the instructions in the question paper thoroughly. If anything is unclear do not panic. Ask the teacher or invigilator for clarification.
  • Read the question carefully twice if necessary. After that, give yourself a reasonable time frame to answer each question. There are many who write one answer for too long and end up with too little time for the others.
Read the instructions in the paper and make sure you fully understand them. If you don't, don't sit and agonize over the words- ask an invigilator.
Check what is required
How many questions must you answer, and how many from each section. Must you use separate answer books? Read through the whole paper.
Make sure you have read all parts of each question.
Check if the question goes on to the next page.
Have you read the back page of the question paper?
Before you start answering the question read it through at least twice.
Decide which question to answer, and in which order.
Pick out questions that relates well with your revision and come back to others.
Doing an answer easier one can boost your confidence and relax you. Just like that tackling a more difficult one while you are still alert may be best for you. You may decide upon this as per your choice, preparation and presence of mind.
Follow the instructions
Answer the correct number of questions. Do not answer extra questions in the hope that you will get extra marks. You won't. This is very important as the examination is aimed at our expertise and ability to present our knowledge only in relation to the questions that are asked, and not our expertise on the whole syllabus.
Manage your time
Don't save the best till the last. When you have read through all the questions on the paper a few times, work out which are likely to be your best questions, and answer those first. This will give you a few guaranteed marks, and also make you feel better. There is no point in struggling through difficult questions, and then finding that you don't have time to answer those that you know could do well on, if time permits.
Keep an eye on time, so that you will have enough time to answer all the questions that you have little awareness. If you don't have time, make a skeleton answer in note form. Or you may even bullet point answers, as a last resort in case of acute scarcity of time. At least you have put something down to which the examiner can go through to assess your basic knowledge on the subject in relation to the concerned question.
If you can't think of an answer to some part, leave space and move on to the next part. Don't write about something else if you do not know the correct answer. This is just a waste of your valuable time and as well as the examiners. Aim to attempt all parts of a question. This will of course maximize your potential marks.
Avoid perfectionism
Don't try to write down all the information you have learned. Avoid wasting time for perfection.
Relate the length of your answer to the marks for each question.
Is your answer book clean and legible?
Be neat- research has shown that when the same paper is written neatly or sloppily, the higher marks are given to the neatly presented paper than the sloppy paper. The answer books have lot of pages to use. There is no need to cram all your writing and diagrams into few pages. Spread things out and help the examiner to see everything clearly. Apart from knowing and understanding the course material that is being examined, the way that you answer the exam questions is very important, because your exam answers are going to be read and marked by the examiner...who is another human being (well...You do not know what kind of)
So, the clearer you make your answer, the easier it will be to make off and get the marks, you really deserve for your contents.
Try to help the examiner read your answers easily. It is in your interest, and it is in the examiner's interest. Remember although you will be answering only one exam paper per course, the examiner may have to mark hundreds of papers.
The well-organised, neat appearing individual will usually get the node over another equally capable person who is disorganised and careless in appearance.
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